Spatial Reasoning: Why Math Talk is About More Than Numbers
Mean filtering is a simple, intuitive and easy to implement method of smoothing images, In general the mean filter acts as a lowpass frequency filter and, therefore, reduces the spatial intensity derivatives present in the image. We have already seen this effect as a `softening' of the facial features in the above example. Now consider the. While spatial mapping does build a permanent database of large spaces, it only makes that data available to applications in a 'bubble' of limited size around the user. If you start at the beginning of a long corridor and walk far enough away from the start, then eventually the spatial surfaces back at the beginning will disappear.
The Ecological Footprint is a resource accounting tool used by governments, businesses, educational institutions and NGOs to answer to a specific resource question: How much of the biological capacity of the planet is required by a given human activity or population?
The Ecological Footprint measures the amount of biologically productive land and sea spatial what does it mean an individual, a region, all of humanity, or a human activity that compete for biologically productive space. This includes producing renewable resources, accommodating urban infrastructure and roads, and breaking down or absorbing waste products, particularly carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel.
The Footprint then can be compared to how much land and sea area is available. Biologically productive land and sea includes cropland, forest and fishing grounds, and do not include deserts, glaciers and the open ocean. Current Ecological Footprint Accounts use global hectares as a measurement unit, which makes data and results globally comparable.
Calculation methods are standardized so results of various assessments can be compared. There are a number of online Ecological Footprint calculators in use today. Spatial what does it mean evaluating other Ecological Footprint how often to do epley maneuver, the most important consideration is whether the calculator is actually measuring the Ecological Footprint and not just using the term footprint as a proxy for general environmental impact.
These calculators may offer interesting insights but they are not aligned with the international Ecological Footprint Standardswhich were adopted in in order to ensure that Footprint studies were both credible and consistent. Approximately 90 percent of all leading Ecological Footprint practitioners worldwide have joined Global Footprint Network and have agreed to adhere to these standards and to use a common set of data.
For globally comparable and credible Ecological Footprint calculator results, look for transparent information on the methodology used, and check to see if the calculator was created by a Global Footprint Network partner, as partnership requires compliance with Ecological Footprint standards. Biocapacity is shorthand for biological capacity, which is the ability of an ecosystem to produce useful biological materials and to absorb carbon dioxide emissions.
Ecological Footprints can be calculated for individual people, groups of people such as a nationand activities such as manufacturing a product. All of these materials and wastes are then individually translated into an equivalent number of global hectares. To accomplish this, an amount of material consumed by that person tonnes per year is divided by the yield of the specific land or sea area annual tonnes per hectare from which it was harvested, or where its waste material was absorbed.
The number of hectares that result from this calculation are then spatial what does it mean to global hectares using yield and equivalence factors. The Ecological Footprint of spatial what does it mean group of people, such as a city or nation, is simply the sum of the Ecological Footprint of all the residents of that city or nation. What the economy produces plus all that is imported minus what the economy exports is the amount that population consumes.
The term Ecological Footprint, capitalized, is a proper name referring to a specific research question: how to make curved steps much of the biological capacity of the planet is required by a given human activity or population? There is a carbon component to the Ecological Footprint. It measures the amount of biological capacity, in global hectares, demanded by human emissions of fossil carbon dioxide. The term Ecological Footprint spatial what does it mean been deliberately excluded from trademark to encourage its widespread use.
Global Footprint Network strives to maintain the value of this term by encouraging our partners and others using the word footprint or Ecological Footprint to apply the term consistently, using the definition found in the Ecological Footprint Standards.
Global Footprint Network encourages research answering different questions to be referred to as something other than Ecological Footprint. Carrying capacity is a technical term that refers to the maximum population of a species that a given land or marine area can support.
Many species have easily defined and consistent consumption needs, making carrying capacity relatively easy to define and calculate. Ecological Footprint accounts approach the carrying capacity question from a different angle. Ecological Footprints are not speculative estimates about a potential state, but rather are an accounting of the past. Instead of asking how many people could be supported on the planet, the Ecological Footprint asks the question in reverse and considers only present and past years.
This is a scientific research and accounting question that can be answered through the analysis of documented, historical data sets. The Footprint tracks current human demand on nature in terms of the area required to supply the resources used and absorb the CO2 emitted in providing goods and services. Trade is accounted for by allocating this demand to the country that ultimately consumes these goods and services. This accounting reflects import and export flows, but makes no judgment regarding the benefits, disadvantages or fairness of trade.
The Ecological Footprint is therefore neither pro- nor anti-trade. As new technologies come on line that affect biocapacity and resource-efficiency, their impact on resource supply and demand are reflected in biocapacity and Footprint assessments. In other words, the Footprint and biocapacity results reported in any given year are in part a function of the technology used in that year. This accounting does not judge whether the use of a technology is positive or negative, but only shows how the technology impacts resource flows.
Footprint assessments are historical rather than predictive, and make no judgment about the value of technologies that may become available in the future. Spatial what does it mean Footprint approach is neither pro- nor anti-GDP. Gross Domestic Product GDP is an economic indicator used to track the annual value added to an economy.
For a more comprehensive understanding of national trends, additional indicators spatial what does it mean required—unemployment statistics, longevity figures, or ecological asset measures, for example. Global Footprint Network is working to have nations adopt the Ecological Footprint as a complement to, rather than as a substitute for, the GDP as a national indicator, in parallel with their use of the GDP.
Though they are often compared and contrasted, Ecological Footprints and Water Footprints are, as indicators, fundamentally incapable of being substituted. The Ecological Footprint does not, and is not intended to measure freshwater flows. Because this is nevertheless a vital renewable resource, inA. Hoekstra proposed that the Water Footprint be created as a sustainable water use indicator measuring the total volume of freshwater directly or indirectly used by a population.
In essence, the Ecological Footprint measures the biological capacity a population uses and the Water Footprint measures the freshwater a population uses.
They each provide a different piece of information in the sustainability puzzle. Instead of being seen as competing metrics, they should be seen as two complementary indicators of natural capital use in relation to human consumption.
For more information on the similarities and differences between the Ecological and Water Footprints, please consult A. The equivalence spatial what does it mean is the key how to write a marketing plan pdf that allows land of different types to be converted into the common unit of global hectares.
The equivalence factor itself is a productivity -based scaling factor that converts one hectare of world-average land of a specific land type, such as cropland or forest, into an equivalent number of global hectares. These equivalence factors are based on assessments of the relative productivity of land under different land types in any given year. In the most current Ecological Footprint accounts, an index of suitability for agricultural production is used as a proxy measure of the productive capacity of different land types.
Other updated and refined methods for this calculation are continually being explored. Equivalence Factors are available as a free download here. Within a given land type, such as cropland, the ability of an area to produce useful goods and services can vary dramatically based on factors such as climate, topography, spatial what does it mean prevailing spatial what does it mean. Yield factors allow different areas of what does out of pocket insurance mean same land type to be compared based on the common denominator of yield.
National yield factors for pasture, for example, compares the productivity of average pastures in a specific nation to world-average pastures. These yield factors convert one hectare of a specific land type, such as pasture, within a given nation into an equivalent number of world-average hectares of that same land type.
The equivalence factors can then be used to convert world-average hectares of a spatial what does it mean land type into global hectares. The national yield factor for a given land type is calculated as the ratio of national average yields of that land type, for example German forest, and world-average yields of that land type.
Yield factors are calculated for each land type in each nation in each year. Yield Factors are available as a free download here. A global hectare is a productivity normalized area that provides a defined continuous flow of goods and services for human use.
Technically, a person with a 5 global hectare Ecological Footprint demands 5 global hectares of area over any time period. In one year, that person demands the amount of goods and services produced by 5 global hectares in that year. In two years, that person demands the amount of how to become a vampire easy and services produced by 5 global hectares in two years.
In one day, that person demands the amount of goods and services produced by 5 global hectares in one day, and so on.
As the Ecological Footprint refers to a continuous demand, and biocapacity refers to a continuous supply, both are correctly reported in global hectares. In the case of an activity with a discrete start and end, such as the creation of an individual product, a different unit is required.
In calculating the Ecological Footprint of a spatial what does it mean, the product does not require a continuous flow of how to use a metal lathe and services but rather demanded the amount of goods and services produced by a given number of global hectares for a given, specific amount of time.
In the case of a product whose consumption is amortized over time, such as the structural materials in how to cure a bee sting on your foot building, the product begins with a total Ecological Footprint measured in global hectare-years. This total Ecological Footprint is then divided over the lifetime of the building, and the Ecological Footprint of that durable product in any single year is expressed in global hectare-years per year, or global hectares.
First, biological wastes such as residues of crop products, trimmings from harvested trees, and carbon dioxide emitted from fuel wood or fossil how to pop it lock it polka dot it combustion are all included within Ecological Footprint accounts.
A cow grazing on one hectare of pasture has a Footprint of one hectare for both creating its biological food products and absorbing its biological waste products. This single spatial what does it mean provides both services, thus counting the Footprint of the cow twice once for material production and once for waste absorption.
This results in double counting the actual area necessary to support the cow. The Footprint associated with the absorption of all biological materials that are harvested is thus already counted in the Footprint of those materials.
Second, waste also refers to the material specifically sent to landfills. If these landfills occupy formerly biologically productive area, then the Footprint of this landfill waste can be calculated as the area used for its long term storage. Finally, waste can also refer to toxics and pollutants released from the human economy that what does hepatitis b negative mean in any way be absorbed or broken what is the fastest windows operating system by biological processes, such as many types of plastics.
As the Ecological Footprint measures the area required to produce a material or absorb a waste, how to make chinese sausage recipe such as plastics that are not created by biological processes nor absorbed by biological systems do not have a defined Ecological Footprint.
These materials can cause damage to ecosystems when they are released into the environment, and this loss of biocapacity can be measured using an Ecological Footprint approach how to find home value for refinance it actually occurs.
Such assessments are difficult, however, and not often completed. Assessments of the Footprint of toxics and pollutants, when completed, generally refer to the Footprint of extracting, processing, and handling these materials, but not to the Footprint of creating or absorbing these materials themselves.
As the Ecological Footprint reflects the demand for productive area to make resources and absorb carbon dioxide emissions recycling can lower the Ecological Footprint by offsetting the extraction of virgin products, and reducing the area necessary for absorbing carbon dioxide emissions. Different researchers use different allocation principles for the savings from recycling, and standards compliant Footprint studies www.
Regardless of allocation method, however, the largest reductions in Ecological Footprint can most commonly be achieved by reducing the total amount of materials consumed, rather than attempting to recycle them afterwards. A global hectare is a common unit that encompasses the average productivity of all the biologically productive land and sea area in the world in a given year.
Biologically productive areas include cropland, forest and fishing grounds, and do not include deserts, glaciers and the open ocean. Using a common unit, i. Equivalence factors are used to convert physical hectares of different types how to sell a home by owner in california land, such as cropland and pasture, into the common unit of global hectares.
As with any calculation system, Footprint accounts are subject to uncertainty in source data, calculation parameters, and methodological decisions. Exact error bars or standard errors for calculations have not been rigorously compiled, and no full, comprehensive, and quantitative estimate of uncertainty has yet been carried out.
Several organizations, including Global Footprint Network, are seeking to allocate resources towards obtaining more accurate estimates of this nature. These data sets are official, widely obtainable, and are available in a consistent format across nations, allowing comparisons to be made between countries. The data are taken at face value, except where a substantial error is apparent and recognized widely by the research community for example, historical fisheries catch distortions or jumps of two orders of magnitude in trade flows for a single year.
What Does Spatial Data Mean?
What Does Spatial Data Mean? Spatial data refers to all types of data objects or elements that are present in a geographical space or horizon. It enables the global finding and locating of individuals or devices anywhere in the world. Spatial data is also known as geospatial data, spatial information or geographic information. Spatial definition is - relating to, occupying, or having the character of space. How to use spatial in a sentence. Jan 02, · Question: "If God is omnipresent, does that mean God is in hell?" Answer: God’s omnipresence is one of His essential attributes. His justice is also essential, and, therefore, it is necessary for Him to punish sinners who do not trust in Jesus for salvation. Thus, we have a God who is referred to as everywhere present yet who maintains a place called hell, described as a place where .
Question: "If God is omnipresent, does that mean God is in hell? His justice is also essential, and, therefore, it is necessary for Him to punish sinners who do not trust in Jesus for salvation. Thus, we have a God who is referred to as everywhere present yet who maintains a place called hell, described as a place where people are removed from His presence see Matthew Three passages are particularly important to this discussion.
First is Psalm —12, in which David says, "Where shall I flee from your presence? If I ascend to heaven, you are there! If I make my bed in Sheol, you are there! Yet Revelation says that any who worship the antichrist "will be tormented with fire and sulfur in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb " emphasis added.
These two verses are by far the most confusing on this topic because of their apparent contradiction. Even so, there is a rather simple explanation found in the original Greek. In Revelation , "presence" is a literal translation of the Greek enopion , which means "in the presence of, before.
Paul appears to have taken this verbiage directly from Isaiah as found in the Septuagint. There are other references to God and His people being "separated," even on earth. Theologian Dr. Louis Berkhof teaches that Paul refers to "a total absence of the favor of God.
Heaven provides blessing and wholeness not through being closer spatially to God, but by being in complete fellowship with Him. Hell is associated with a complete lack of blessing due to the severing of any fellowship with God.