Classical Greek architecture is best represented by substantially intact ruins of temples and open-air theaters. The architectural style of classical Greece can be divided into three separate orders: the Doric Order, the Ionic Order, and the Corinthian Order. All three styles have had a profound impact on Western architecture of later periods. The pontifex maximus (Latin for "greatest priest") was the chief high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient thismestory.com was the most important position in the ancient Roman religion, open only to patricians until BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. Although in fact the most powerful office in the Roman priesthood, the pontifex maximus was officially.
Indus civilizationalso called Indus valley civilization or Harappan civilizationthe earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. The nuclear dates of the civilization appear to be about — bcethough the southern sites may have lasted later into the 2nd millennium bce. The Indus civilization began in the Indus River valley, evolving from villages that used the Mesopotamian model of irrigated agriculture. The Harappan civilization was located in the Indus River valley.
It remains unclear how the Indus civilization came to an end, and its decline was probably not uniform. By the middle of the 2nd millennium BCE, the city of Mohenjo-daro was already dying and was dealt a final blow by invaders from the north. The civilization was first identified in at Harappa in the Punjab region and then in at Mohenjo-daro Mohenjodaronear the Indus River in the Sindh Sind region. Both sites are in present-day Pakistanin Punjab and Sindh provinces, respectively.
Subsequently, vestiges of the civilization were found as far apart as Sutkagen Dor in southwestern Balochistan province, Pakistan, near the shore of the Arabian Seaabout miles km west of Karachi ; and at Ropar or Ruparin eastern Punjab state, northwestern Indiaat the foot of the Shimla Hills some 1, miles 1, km northeast of Sutkagen Dor. Later exploration established its existence southward down the west coast of India as far as the Gulf of Khambhat Cambaymiles km southeast of Karachi, and as far east as the Yamuna Jumna River basin, 30 miles 50 km north of Delhi.
The Indus civilization is known to have consisted of two large cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, and more than towns and villages, often of relatively small size. The two what is a classical civilization were each perhaps originally about 1 mile 1.
It is also possible that Harappa succeeded Mohenjo-daro, which is known to have been devastated more than once by exceptional floods.
The southern region of the civilization, on the Kathiawar Peninsula and beyond, appears to be of later origin than the major Indus sites. The civilization was literate, and its script, with some to characters, has been partly and tentatively deciphered; the language has been indefinitely identified as Dravidian.
The Indus civilization apparently evolved from the villages of neighbours or predecessors, using the Mesopotamian model of irrigated agriculture with sufficient skill to reap the advantages of the spacious how to shave chest without ingrown hairs fertile Indus River valley while controlling the formidable annual flood that simultaneously fertilizes and destroys.
Having obtained a secure foothold on the plain and mastered its more immediate problems, the new civilization, doubtless with a well-nourished and increasing population, would find expansion along how to turn off my brain so i can sleep flanks of the great waterways an inevitable sequel.
The civilization subsisted primarily by farming, what is the formula to calculate work by an appreciable but often elusive commerce. Wheat and six-row barley were grown; field peas, mustard, sesame, and a few date stones have also been found, as well as some of the earliest known traces of cotton. Domesticated animals included dogs and cats, what is a classical civilization and shorthorn cattle, domestic fowl, and possibly pigs, camels, and buffalo.
The Asian elephant probably was also domesticated, and its ivory tusks were what is a classical civilization used.
Minerals, unavailable from the alluvial plainwere sometimes brought in from far afield. Gold was imported from southern India or Afghanistansilver and copper from Afghanistan or northwestern India present-day Rajasthan statelapis lazuli from Afghanistan, turquoise from Iran Persiaand a jadelike fuchsite from southern India. Perhaps the best-known artifacts of the Indus civilization are a number of small sealsgenerally made of steatite a form of talcwhich are distinctive in kind and unique in quality, depicting a wide variety of animals, both real—such as elephants, tigers, rhinoceros, and antelopes—and fantastic, often composite creatures.
Sometimes human forms are included. A few examples of Indus stone sculpture have also been found, usually small and representing humans or gods. There are great numbers of small terra-cotta figures of animals and humans. How and when the civilization came to an end remains uncertain.
In fact, no uniform ending need be postulated for a culture so widely distributed. But the end of Mohenjo-daro is known and was dramatic how to build a wood boiler system sudden. Mohenjo-daro what is a classical civilization attacked toward the middle of the 2nd millennium bce by raiders who swept over the city and then passed on, leaving the dead lying where how to remove motion blur in sony vegas fell.
Who the attackers were is matter for conjecture. Deep floods had more than once submerged large tracts of it. Houses had become increasingly shoddy in construction and showed signs of overcrowding. The final blow seems to have been sudden, but the city was already dying. As the evidence stands, the civilization was succeeded in the Indus valley by poverty-stricken culturesderiving a little from a sub-Indus heritage but also drawing elements from the direction of Iran and the Caucasus —from the general direction, in fact, of the northern invasions.
For many centuries urban civilization was dead in the northwest of what is a classical civilization Indian subcontinent. In the south, however, in Kathiawar and beyond, the situation appears to have been very different.
There it would seem that there was a real cultural continuity between the late Indus phase and the Copper Age cultures that characterized central and western India between and the 1st millennium bce.
Those cultures form a material bridge between the end of the Indus civilization proper and the developed Iron Age civilization that arose in India about bce. Indus civilization Article Media Additional Info. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources what is a classical civilization you have any questions.
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Principal sites of the Indus civilization. Top Questions. An overview what is a classical civilization the Indus civilization. Ruins of the ancient city of Harappa in Punjab, Pakistan. Portion of the ruins at the Mohenjo-daro archaeological site, southeastern Pakistan. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Assortment of seals with animal motifs in use during the time of the Indus civilization, 2nd—3rd millennium bce.
Harappan cooking pots in use during the Indus what chocolate to make chocolate covered strawberries, c. Site overview of Mohenjo-daro, eastern Pakistan. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. While the Indus or Harappan civilization may be considered the culmination what does the seven golden lampstands represent in revelation a long process indigenous to the Indus valley, a number of parallels exist between developments on the Indus River and the rise of civilization in Mesopotamia.
It is…. South Asian arts: Indus Valley civilization c. From excavated remains, it is clear that the Indus Valley civilization possessed a flourishing urban architecture. South Asian arts: Indus valley civilization c. Sculpture found in excavated cities consists of small pieces, generally terra-cotta objects, soapstone, or steatite, seals carved for the most part with animals, and a few statuettes of stone and bronze.
The terra-cotta figurines are summarily modelled and provided…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice.
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Indus civilization, the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. The nuclear dates of the civilization appear to be about – BCE, though the southern sites may have lasted later into the 2nd millennium BCE. Learn more about the Indus civilization in this article. Mar 23, · Junior Classical League NW Washington Blvd., Suite A Hamilton, Ohio
The pontifex maximus Latin for "greatest priest"    was the chief high priest of the College of Pontiffs Collegium Pontificum in ancient Rome. This was the most important position in the ancient Roman religion , open only to patricians until BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post.
Although in fact the most powerful office in the Roman priesthood, the pontifex maximus was officially ranked fifth in the ranking of the highest Roman priests ordo sacerdotum , behind the rex sacrorum and the flamines maiores Flamen Dialis , Flamen Martialis , Flamen Quirinalis. A distinctly religious office under the early Roman Republic , it gradually became politicized until, beginning with Augustus , it was subsumed into the position of emperor in the Roman imperial period.
Subsequent emperors were styled pontifex maximus well into Late Antiquity , including Gratian r. The first to adopt the inclytus alternative to maximus may have been the rebel augustus Magnus Maximus r. The word pontifex and its derivative "pontiff" became terms used for Christian bishops ,  including the Bishop of Rome ,   and the title of pontifex maximus was applied to the Catholic Church for the pope as its chief bishop and appears on buildings, monuments and coins of popes of Renaissance and modern times.
The official list of titles of the pope given in the Annuario Pontificio includes "supreme pontiff" Latin : summus pontifex as the fourth title, the first being "bishop of Rome". The etymology of "pontifex" is uncertain, but the word has been used since Roman times. The word appears to consist of the Latin word for "bridge" and the suffix for "maker". However, there is a possibility that this definition is a folk etymology for an Etruscan term,  since Roman religion was heavily influenced by Etruscan religion, and very little is known about the Etruscan language, which is not Indo-European.
This was perhaps originally meant in a literal sense: the position of bridge-builder was indeed an important one in Rome, where the major bridges were over the Tiber , the sacred river and a deity : only prestigious authorities with sacral functions could be allowed to "disturb" it with mechanical additions.
However, it was always understood in its symbolic sense as well: the pontifices were the ones who smoothed the "bridge" between gods and men. The interpretation of the word pontifex as "bridge-builder" was that of Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Marcus Terentius Varro.
Plutarch pointed out that the term existed before there were any bridges in Rome and derived the word from Old Latin pontis [ sic ] meaning a powerful or absolute master, while others derived it from potis facere in the sense of "able to sacrifice".
Another opinion is that the word is a corruption of a similar-sounding but etymologically unrelated Etruscan word. The pontifex would thence be a member of a sacrificial college known as pomperia Latin quinio. The word pontifex , Latin for " pontiff ", was used in ancient Rome to designate a member of the College of Pontiffs. From perhaps as early as the 3rd century, it has been used to denote a Christian bishop.
In the Vulgate, the term summus pontifex was originally applied to the High Priest of Israel , as in the Book of Judith Judith , whose place, each in his own diocese , the Christian bishops were regarded as holding, based on an interpretation of the First Epistle of Clement I Clement The foundation of this sacred college and the office of pontifex maximus is attributed to the second king of Rome , Numa Pompilius.
The Collegium presumably acted as advisers to the rex king in religious matters. The collegium was headed by the pontifex maximus , and all the pontifices held their office for life. But the pontifical records of early Rome were most likely destroyed when the city was sacked by the Gauls in BC, and the earliest accounts of Archaic Rome come from the literature of the Republic , most of it from the 1st century BC and later.
According to the Augustan -era historian Livy , Numa Pompilius, a Sabine , devised Rome's system of religious rites, including the manner and timing of sacrifices, the supervision of religious funds, authority over all public and private religious institutions, instruction of the populace in the celestial and funerary rites including appeasing the dead, and expiation of prodigies. Numa is said to have founded Roman religion after dedicating an altar on the Aventine Hill to Jupiter Elicius and consulting the gods by means of augury.
In the Roman Republic , the pontifex maximus was the highest office in the state religion of ancient Rome and directed the College of Pontiffs. According to Livy, after the overthrow of the monarchy, the Romans created the priesthood of the rex sacrorum , or "king of sacred rites," to carry out certain religious duties and rituals previously performed by the king. The rex sacrorum was explicitly deprived of military and political power, but the pontifices were permitted to hold both magistracies and military commands.
His religious duties were carried out from the Regia. Unless the pontifex maximus was also a magistrate, he was not allowed to wear the toga praetexta , i. In artistic representations, he can be recognized by his holding an iron knife secespita  or the patera ,  and the distinctive robes or toga with part of the mantle covering the head capite velato , in keeping with Roman practice.
The Pontifex was not simply a priest. He had both political and religious authority. It is not clear which of the two came first or had the most importance. In practice, particularly during the late Republic, the office of pontifex maximus was generally held by a member of a politically prominent family. It was a coveted position mainly for the great prestige it conferred on the holder; Julius Caesar became pontifex in 73 BC and pontifex maximus in 63 BC.
The major Republican source on the pontiffs would have been the theological writings of Varro , which survive only in fragments preserved by later authors such as Aulus Gellius and Nonius Marcellus. Some of these sources present an extensive list of everyday prohibitions for the pontifex maximus ; it seems difficult to reconcile these lists with evidence that many pontifices maximi were prominent members of society who lived normal, non-restricted lives.
The number of Pontifices, elected by co-optatio i. However, in — BC the lex Ogulnia opened the office of pontifex maximus to public election and permitted the plebs plebeians to be co-opted as priests, so that part of the exclusivity of the title was lost. But it was only in BC that Tiberius Coruncanius became the first plebeian pontifex maximus. The lex Ogulnia also increased the number of pontiffs to nine the pontifex maximus included.
In BC the lex Domitia prescribed that the election of all pontiffs would henceforward be voted by the comitia tributa an assembly of the people divided into voting districts ; by the same law only 17 tribes, chosen by lot from the 35 tribes of the city, could vote. The law's promulgator, L[ucius] Domitius Ahenobarbus, was shortly afterwards elected pontifex maximus after the death of the incumbent Metellus Dalmaticus: Something of a personal revenge because, the previous year, he had expected to be co-opted as a pontiff to replace his late father, but the pontifical college had appointed another candidate in his place.
The office's next holder, Q[uintus] Mucius Scaevola, was also elected under the same law, though without controversy or opposition since he was a former consul and long-serving pontiff.
This law was abolished in 81 BC by Sulla in his dictatorship, in the lex Cornelia de Sacerdotiis , which restored to the great priestly colleges their full right of co-optatio. In 63 BC, the law of Sulla was abolished by the tribune Titus Labienus , and a modified form of the lex Domitia was reinstated providing for election by comitia tributa once again: Gaius Julius Caesar followed Ahenobarbus's precedent by being elected by public vote, although Caesar at least had previously been a pontiff.
Marcus Antonius later restored the right of co-optatio to the college,  in time for the election of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Also under Julius Caesar , the number of pontifices were increased to sixteen, the pontifex maximus included. Possibly because Caesar's own long absences from Rome necessitated the appointment of a deputy pontiff for those occasions when fifteen needed to be present.
The number of pontifices varied during the Empire but is believed to have been regular at fifteen. The office came into its own with the abolition of the monarchy, when most sacral powers previously vested in the King were transferred either to the pontifex maximus or to the Rex Sacrorum , though traditionally a non-political dictator  was formally mandated by the Senate for one day, to perform a specific rite.
According to Livy in his "History of Rome", an ancient instruction written in archaic letters commands: "Let him who is the Praetor Maximus fasten a nail on the Ides of September. This nail is said to have marked the number of the year. It was in accordance with this direction that the consul Horatius dedicated the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus in the year following the expulsion of the kings; from the Consuls the ceremony of fastening the nails passed to the Dictators, because they possessed greater authority.
As the custom had been subsequently dropped, it was felt to be of sufficient importance to require the appointment of a Dictator. L[ucius] Manlius was accordingly nominated but his appointment was due to political rather than religious reasons.
He was eager to command in the war with the Hernici. He caused a very angry feeling among the men liable to serve by the inconsiderate way in which he conducted the enrolment. At last, in consequence of the unanimous resistance offered by the tribunes of the plebs, he gave way, either voluntarily or through compulsion, and laid down his Dictatorship.
Since then, this rite has been performed by the Rex Sacrorum. The main duty of the Pontifices was to maintain the pax deorum or "peace of the gods. The immense authority of the sacred college of pontiffs was centered on the pontifex maximus , the other pontifices forming his consilium or advising body.
His functions were partly sacrificial or ritualistic, but these were the least important. His real power lay in the administration of ius divinum or divine law;  the information collected by the pontifices related to the Roman religious tradition was bound in a corpus which summarized dogma and other concepts.
The chief departments of jus divinum may be described as follows:. The pontifices had many relevant and prestigious functions such as being in charge of caring for the state archives, the keeping the official minutes of elected magistrates  and list of magistrates, and they kept the records of their own decisions commentarii and of the chief events of each year, the so-called "public diaries", the Annales maximi.
The pontifex maximus was also subject to several taboos. Among them was the prohibition to leave Italy. Plutarch described Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio — BC as the first to leave Italy, after being forced by the Senate to do so, and thus break the sacred taboo. Afterwards it became common and no longer against the law for the pontifex maximus to leave Italy. Among the most notable of those who did was Julius Caesar 63—44 BC.
The Pontifices were in charge of the Roman calendar and determined when intercalary months needed to be added to synchronize the calendar to the seasons. Since the Pontifices were often politicians, and because a Roman magistrate's term of office corresponded with a calendar year, this power was prone to abuse: a Pontifex could lengthen a year in which he or one of his political allies was in office, or refuse to lengthen one in which his opponents were in power. This caused the calendar to become out of step with the seasons; for example, Caesar's crossing of the Rubicon in January 49 BC actually took place in mid-autumn.
Under his authority as pontifex maximus , Julius Caesar introduced the calendar reform that created the Julian calendar , with a fault of less than a day per century, and which remained the standard till the Gregorian reform in the 16th century. Though Lepidus eventually fell out of political favor and was sent into exile as Augustus consolidated power, he retained the priestly office until his death in 13 BC, at which point Augustus was selected to succeed him and given the right to appoint other pontifices.
Thus, from the time of Augustus, the election of pontifices ended and membership in the sacred college was deemed a sign of imperial favour. Most authors contend that the power of naming the Pontifices was not really used as an instrumentum regni , an enforcing power. From this point on, pontifex maximus was one of the many titles of the Emperor, slowly losing its specific and historical powers and becoming simply a referent for the sacral aspect of imperial duties and powers.
During the Imperial period, a promagister vice-master performed the duties of the pontifex maximus in lieu of the emperors whenever they were absent. In post-Severan times after AD , the small number of pagan senators interested in becoming pontiffs led to a change in the pattern of office holding.
In Republican and Imperial times no more than one family member of a gens was member of the College of Pontiffs , nor did one person hold more than one priesthood in this collegium. However, these rules were obviously loosened in the later part of the 3rd century A. In periods of joint rule, at first only one of the emperors bore this title, as it occurred for the first time during the reign of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus , when only Marcus Aurelius was pontifex maximus , but later two pontifices maximi could serve together, as Pupienus and Balbinus did in AD—a situation unthinkable in Republican times.
When Tertullian , a Montanist , furiously applied the term to some bishop with whom he was at odds either Pope Callixtus I or Agrippinus of Carthage ,   c , over a relaxation of the Church's penitential discipline allowing repentant adulterers and fornicators back into the Church, it was in bitter irony:. In opposition to this [modesty], could I not have acted the dissembler? I hear that there has even been an edict sent forth, and a peremptory one too.
The "Pontifex Maximus," that is the "bishop of bishops," issues an edict: "I remit, to such as have discharged [the requirements of] repentance, the sins both of adultery and of fornication. Far, far from Christ's betrothed be such a proclamation!
In the Crisis of the Third Century , emperors continued to assume the title pontifex maximus. The early Christian emperors, including Constantine the Great r. The Edict of Thessalonica of 27 February was enacted in Thessalonica Thessaloniki and published in Constantinople Istanbul for the whole empire. The Latin text refers to the bishop of Rome, Damasus , as a pontifex , and the bishop of Alexandria, Peter , as an episcopus : .
We authorize the followers of this law to assume the title Catholic Christians Various forms of summus pontifex 'highest pontiff' or bishop were for centuries used not only of the Bishop of Rome but of other bishops also. L, col. During Gratian's reign or immediately afterwards the phrase pontifex maximus — which had unwelcome associations with traditional Roman religion during the Christianization of the Roman Empire — was replaced in imperial titulature with the phrase: pontifex inclytus.