Complete List of MS-DOS Commands
Dec 02, · In MS-DOS, the format command is often used after using the fdisk command. Considering how easy formatting is from within Windows, the command isn't often used in the Command Prompt in Windows. Formatting a hard drive is unnecessary if you want to delete just a few files. The del command exists to remove select files from the command line. DOS theEasyWayby Everett Murdock Ph.D. CLICK HEREfor information about downloading the book. Type: External ( and later) Syntax: FORMAT d:[/1][/4][/8][/F:(size)] [/N:(sectors)] [/T:(tracks)] [/B|/S][/C] [/V:(label)] [/Q][/U][/V] Purpose: Formats a disk to accept DOS files. Discussion.
MS-DOS was the main operating system for IBM PC compatible personal computers during the s, from which point it was gradually superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface GUIin various generations of the graphical Microsoft Windows operating system.
During its lifetime, several competing products were released for the x86 platform,  and MS-DOS xos through eight versions, until development ceased in Doos version releases delivered support for other mass storage media in ever greater sizes and formats, along with added feature support for newer processors and rapidly evolving computer architectures. Ultimately, it was the key product in Microsoft's development from a programming language company to a foramt software development firm, providing the company with essential revenue and marketing what is ms dos format. It was also the underlying basic operating system on which early versions of Windows ran as a GUI.
This first version was shipped in August To this end, MS-DOS was designed with a modular structure with internal device drivers the DOS BIOSminimally for primary what mattress is best for back drives and the console, integrated with the kernel and loaded by the boot loader, and installable device drivers for other devices loaded and integrated at boot time.
However, in MS-DOS's early days, the greater speed attainable by programs through direct control of hardware was of particular importance, especially for games, which often pushed the limits of their contemporary hardware.
Very soon an IBM-compatible architecture became the goal, and before long all family computers closely emulated IBM's hardwareand only a single version of MS-DOS for a fixed hardware platform was needed for the market.
This version is the version of MS-DOS that is discussed here, as the dozens of other OEM versions of "MS-DOS" were only relevant to the systems they were designed for, and in any dod were very similar in function and capability to some standard version for the IBM PC—often the same-numbered version, but not always, since some OEMs used their own proprietary version numbering schemes e. MS-DOS originally supported the simple. COM files. MS-DOS version 1.
EXE executable file format. Most of the machines in the early days of MS-DOS had differing system architectures and there was a certain degree of incompatibility, and subsequently vendor lock-in. Users who began using MS-DOS with their machines were compelled to continue using the version customized for their hardware, or face trying to get all of their proprietary hardware and software to work with the new system. In the business world the x-based machines that MS-DOS was tied to faced competition from the Unix operating system which ran on many different hardware architectures.
What is ms dos format itself sold a version of Unix for the PC called Xenix. In the emerging world of home users, a variety of other computers based on various other processors were in serious competition with the IBM PC: the Apple IIearly Apple Macintoshthe Commodore ls and others did not use the x processor; many x machines of different architectures used custom versions of MS-DOS.
At first all these machines were in competition. In time the IBM PC hardware configuration became dominant in the x market as software written to communicate directly with the PC hardware without using standard operating system calls ran much faster, but on true PC-compatibles only. Most clones cost much less than IBM-branded machines of similar performance, and became widely used by home users, while IBM PCs had a large share of the business computer wbat.
MS-DOS had grown in spurts, with many significant features being taken or duplicated from Microsoft's other products and operating systems.
There will be some similar features. In the due diligence process, Stac engineers had shown Microsoft part of the Stacker source code. Stac was unwilling to meet Microsoft's terms for licensing Stacker and mx from the negotiations. Microsoft chose to license Vertisoft's DoubleDisk, using it as the core for its DoubleSpace disk compression. MS-DOS 6. Stac successfully sued Microsoft for patent infringement regarding the compression algorithm used in DoubleSpace.
Shortly afterwards came version 6. Prior toMicrosoft licensed MS-DOS and Windows to computer manufacturers under three types of agreement: per-processor a fee for each system the company soldper-system a mms for each system of a particular modelmms per-copy a fee for each copy of MS-DOS installed. The largest manufacturers used the per-processor arrangement, which had the lowest fee.
This arrangement made it expensive for the large manufacturers to migrate to any other what does the longest word in the dictionary mean system, such as DR DOS.
Inthe U. Digital Research did not gain by this settlement, and years later its successor in interest, Calderasued Microsoft iss damages in the Caldera v. Microsoft lawsuit. Notable examples of this practice included:. The introduction of Windows 3. With the release of Windows 95 and continuing in the Windows 9x product line through to Windows Mean integrated version of MS-DOS was used for bootstrappingtroubleshooting, and backwards-compatibility with old DOS software, particularly games, and no longer released as a standalone product.
SYS no longer had content. Some of the deleted files what is ms dos format be recovered with an undelete tool. Starting with Windows 10, the ability to create a DOS startup disk has been us and so either a virtual machine how to create a brochure on word 2013 MS-DOS or an older version in a virtual machine or dual boot what is ms dos format be used to format a floppy disk, or an image must be obtained from an external source.
Other solutions include using DOS compatible alternatives, such as FreeDOS or even copying the required files and boot sector themselves. MS-DOS is still used in embedded x86 systems due to its simple architecture and minimal memory and processor requirements, though some current products have switched to the still-maintained open-source alternative FreeDOS.
The purpose of this, according to Microsoft, is mainly for how to read text from image in android and experimentation with historic operating systems and for new programmers to gain whst understanding of how low-level software works, both historic and current. According to program manager Rich Turner, the other versions could not be open-sourced due how to make a habbo retro for free no download third-party what is ms dos format restrictions.
Due to the historical nature of the software, Microsoft will not accept any pull requests to the code; only pull requests for modified and translated documentation will be accepted.
Users, however, are allowed and fully encouraged to fork the repository containing the MS-DOS source code and make their own modifications, and do whatever they like with it. The bit versions of Windows up to 3. Using the host's window allows one to pipe output between emulations.
EXE4NT. EXEcan see the output. The DOS version returns 5. EXE and OS2. Win32 console applications use CMD. EXE as their command prompt shell. From onwards, various companies worked on graphical user interfaces GUIs capable of running on PC hardware. However, this required ns effort and did not provide much consistency in interface design even between products from the same company.
Later, inMicrosoft Windows 1. At first Windows met with little success, but this was also true for most other companies' efforts as well, for example GEM. After version 3. Windows 9x used the DOS boot process to launch into what is ms dos format mode.
Basic features related to the file system, such as long file names, were only available to DOS when running as a subsystem of Windows. Digital Research did not follow Microsoft's version numbering scheme. MS-DOS 5. Microsoft's control of the Windows platform, and their programming practices which intentionally made Windows appear as if it ran poorly on competing versions of DOS, crippled the ability of other DOS makers to continue to compete with MS-DOS.
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Main article: DOS. Computer programming portal. Seattle Computer Products. Archived from the original on May 6, Retrieved April 16, Retrieved September 29, The Linux Information Project.
Archived from the formxt on December 14, Retrieved December 14, July 30, Archived from the original on July 6, Retrieved April 6, A history of the personal computer: the people and the technology. London, Ontario : Allan Pub. ISBN Retrieved December 5, Retrieved January 30, Archived from the original on February 9, November Archived from the dks on May 10, Retrieved May 10, Digital Research.
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3 rows · Feb 20, · Alasdair King asks why Wordpad has three formats, Text Document, Text Document – MS-DOS. 34 rows · Feb 16, · The unformat command is used to undo the formatting on a drive performed by the MS-DOS format. Apr 18, · If you partition and format a drive in OS X Lion for use with both systems, Windows and OS X, OS X lists the format as MS-DOS (FAT) but it really formats the drive as FAT In Windows, older versions, you could format FAT (also known as FAT16) and FAT With Win 7 I think MS has taken out the ability to format any drive of any real size using FAT/FAT
DOS commands are the commands available in MS-DOS that are used to interact with the operating system and other command line based software.
Unlike in Windows, DOS commands are the primary way in which you use the operating system. Windows and other modern OSs use a graphics-based system designed for touch or a mouse. If you use Windows like Windows 10, 8, 7, etc. Check below the table at the bottom of this page for more information. We also have a command comparison table to show which commands are available in different Microsoft operating systems.
If you're interested, there are also Windows-specific lists, which you can find in these Windows 8 commands , Windows 7 commands , and Windows XP commands documents. Actively scan device characteristics for identification. Use precise geolocation data. Select personalised content. Create a personalised content profile. Measure ad performance. Select basic ads. Create a personalised ads profile. Select personalised ads. Apply market research to generate audience insights.
Measure content performance. Develop and improve products. List of Partners vendors. Tim Fisher. General Manager, VP, Lifewire. He writes troubleshooting content and is the General Manager of Lifewire. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn. Updated on February 16, Michael Barton Heine Jr. Lifewire Tech Review Board Member. Article reviewed on Mar 05, Tweet Share Email.
Assign The assign command is used to redirect drive requests to a different drive. This command can also show drive assignments and reset drive letters to their original assignments. Attrib The attrib command is used to change the attributes of a single file or a directory.
Call The call command is used to run a script or batch program from within another script or batch program. The call command has no effect outside of a script or batch file. Cd The cd command is the shorthand version of the chdir command. Chcp The chcp command displays or configures the active code page number.
Chdir The chdir command is used to display the drive letter and folder that you are currently in. Chkdsk The chkdsk command, often referred to as check disk, is used to identify and correct certain hard drive errors.
Choice The choice command is used within a script or batch program to provide a list of choices and return the value of that choice to the program. Cls The cls command clears the screen of all previously entered commands and other text.
Command The command command starts a new instance of the command. Copy The copy command copies one or more files from one location to another. Ctty The ctty command is used to change the default input and output devices for the system. Date The date command is used to show or change the current date. Dblspace The dblspace command is used to create or configure DoubleSpace compressed drives.
Debug The debug command starts Debug, a command line application used to test and edit programs. Defrag The defrag command is used to defragment a drive you specify. The defrag command is the command line version of Microsoft's Disk Defragmenter. Del The del command is used to delete one or more files. The del command is the same as the erase command. Deltree The deltree command is used to delete a directory and all the files and subdirectories within it.
SYS file to load device drivers into memory. SYS file to load device drivers into upper memory. Dir The dir command is used to display a list of files and folders contained inside the folder that you are currently working in. The dir command also displays other important information like the hard drive's serial number , the total number of files listed, their combined size, the total amount of free space left on the drive, and more.
Diskcomp The diskcomp command is used to compare the contents of two floppy disks. Diskcopy The diskcopy command is used to copy the entire contents of one floppy disk to another.
Doskey The doskey command is used to edit command lines, create macros, and recall previously entered commands. Drvspace The drvspace command is used to create or configure DriveSpace compressed drives. DriveSpace, executed using the drvspace command, is an updated version of DoubleSpace. DriveSpace is an updated version of DoubleSpace, executed using the dblspace command.
Echo The echo command is used to show messages, most commonly from within script or batch files. The echo command can also be used to turn the echoing feature on or off. Edlin The edlin command starts the Edlin tool, which is used to create and modify text files from the command line.
Exe2bin The exe2bin command is used to convert. EXE files to binary format. Erase The erase command is used to delete one or more files. The erase command is the same as the del command. Exit The exit command is used to end the command. Fastopen The fastopen command is used to add a program's hard drive location to a special list stored in memory, potentially improving the program's launch time by removing the need for MS-DOS to locate the application on the drive.
Fc The fc command is used to compare two individual or sets of files and then show the differences between them. SYS file to specify the number of file-control blocks for file sharing. Fdisk The fdisk command is used to create, manage, and delete hard drive partitions.
SYS file to specify the maximum number of files that can be open at the same time. Find The find command is used to search for a specified text string in one or more files. For The for command is used to run a specified command for each file in a set of files. The for command is most often used within a batch or script file. Format The format command is used to format a drive in the file system that you specify. Goto The goto command is used in a batch or script file to direct the command process to a labeled line in the script.
Graphics The graphics command is used to load a program that can print graphics. If The if command is used to perform conditional functions in a batch file. SYS block within another. SYS file to load memory-resident programs into conventional memory. Interlnk The interlnk command is used to connect two computers via a serial or parallel connection to share files and printers.
Intersvr The intersvr command is used to start the Interlnk server and to copy Interlnk files from one computer to another. Join The join command is used to attach a drive letter to a directory located on another drive. It's similar to the subst command which associates a drive letter with a local directory. Keyb The keyb command is used to configure a keyboard for a specific language. Label The label command is used to manage the volume label of a disk.
SYS file to set the maximum number of drives that can be accessed. Lh The lh command is the shorthand version of the loadhigh command. Loadfix The loadfix command is used to load the specified program in the first 64K of memory and then runs the program. Loadhigh The loadhigh command is used to load a program into high memory and is usually used from within the autoexec. Md The md command is the shorthand version of the mkdir command. Mem The mem command shows information about used and free memory areas and programs that are currently loaded into memory in the MS-DOS subsystem.
Memmaker The memmaker command is used to start MemMaker, a memory optimization tool. SYS file to set text colors. SYS file to set the startup configuration that will be used if no key is pressed within the specified timeout period. SYS commands to be processed upon reboot. Mkdir The mkdir command is used to create a new folder.