an answer or reply, as in words or in some action. Biology. any behavior of a living organism that results from an external or internal stimulus. What does response mean? A reply or an answer. (noun) Old French, ultimately from the Latin respA nsum, a nominal use of the neuter form of respA nsus, the perfect passive participle of respondeA, from re (“again") + spondeA (“promise").
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Breaking the ice and throwing caution to the wind Weather idioms, Part 3. Definitions How to insert text into pdf explanations of natural written and spoken English.
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Usage explanations of natural written and spoken English. Word Lists. Choose your language. My word lists. Tell us about this example sentence:. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. The sentence contains offensive content. Cancel Submit. Your feedback will be reviewed. B2 [ C or U ] an answer or reaction :.
Responses to our advertisement have been disappointing. Her proposals met with an enthusiastic response. I looked in her face for some response, but she just stared at me blankly. Management have granted a ten percent raise in response to union pressure. See more results ». The response to our advertisement has been somewhat disappointing. Have you managed to elicit a response from them yet?
We must make an immediate response. The patient's responses are recorded on a sensitive piece of equipment which gives what is the definition of response in science accurate readings. You can also find related words, phrases, and synonyms in the topics: Reacting and responding. Want to learn more? I am writing in response to your email.
He spoke in response to the news that the business had failed. Translations of response in Chinese Traditional. See more. Need a translator? Translator tool.
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Response Sentence Examples
A reply or an answer. 3. A reaction, as that of an organism or a mechanism, to a specific stimulus: a microphone's response to certain frequencies; response by the immune system to a pathogen. 4. the manner in which an electrical or mechanical device responds to an input signal or a range of input signals. see more. see less. type of: fashion, manner, modality, mode, style, way. how something is done or how it happens. noun. a result. “this situation developed in response to events in Africa”. GCSE Biology (Science) revision section covering types of response within the Central Nervous System, CNS, peripheral nervous system, sensory neurone, motor neurone, relay neurone, reflex action, voluntary action, brain, knee jerk, pupil reflex, accommodation, ducking, Nerve impulses and spinal cord, reflex arc.
Dose-response relationship , effect on an organism or, more specifically, on the risk of a defined outcome produced by a given amount of an agent or a level of exposure. A dose-response relationship is one in which increasing levels of exposure are associated with either an increasing or a decreasing risk of the outcome. Demonstration of a dose-response relationship is considered strong evidence for a causal relationship between the exposure and the outcome.
The chance of a causal relationship cannot be disregarded, however, even when a dose-response relationship is absent.
Exposure in investigations of dose-response relationships can be characterized in different ways, including peak exposure; duration of exposure at or above a set level; average exposure, which is a time-weighted average of exposure; or cumulative exposure, which is the sum of time-weighted exposures. In any of those instances, the increase in exposure can be in its intensity or its duration. Dose-response relationships can be affected significantly by time.
For example, the time to response when examining the relationship of the exposure to the outcome can be influenced by a latent period between exposure and the outcome. If the effects are measured too soon after the exposure, no effect will be seen, even in the case where the exposure causes the outcome. One example of this is the increased risk of leukemia after exposure to radiation , which can have a latent period of between 2 and 20 years, depending on the nature of the exposure.
Odds ratios and relative risks measures of association between exposures and outcomes can be calculated for categories of increasing exposure, where each higher exposure is compared with a baseline exposure level. The mathematical relationship of exposure to outcome may be linear, be log linear, or follow some other pattern. There may be some level of risk even in the absence of exposure, or there may be a threshold dose below which no affect of exposure on risk is seen.
In some cases, the relationship between exposure and outcome may be U-shaped when plotted as a graph , with high risk at both extremes of exposure and lower risk at intermediate exposures. One example of this is the relationship of vitamin A with birth defects. Increased risk of birth defects is seen not only with deficiency in vitamin A but also with excessive doses. A statistical test for trend can be performed to verify that any apparent trend in the data for a dose-response relationship is statistically significant.
The Cochran-Armitage test, for example, is used to detect trends in a binary outcome e. Another example is the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test, an extension of the chi-square test for trend. Inclusion of small numbers in the groups at the extreme ends of the exposure distribution may lead to statistically unstable rates in those groups, potentially affecting the validity of an apparent trend. Also, the end categories sometimes include extreme values, which can influence the results.
For that reason, researchers often also examine the effect of extreme values on the results of a dose-response relationship study. Dose-response relationship Article Media Additional Info. Print Cite verified Cite. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
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Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The effect produced by a drug varies with the concentration that is present at its site of action and usually approaches a maximum value beyond which a further increase in concentration is no more effective.
A useful measure is the median effective dose,…. The dose concept is important because according to it even a substance as innocuous as water is poisonous if too much is ingested. Whether a drug acts as a therapy or as a poison depends on the dose. History at your fingertips.
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