Xhosa Cultural Customs
Xhosa culture: the clans and customs. he AmaXhosa are one of four nations, known as Nguni, that are found in South Africa. The other three are AmaNdebele, AmaSwazi and AmaZulu. The AmaXhosa settled in the Eastern Cape and over time spread to the Western Cape. The . Oct 29, †Ј It is the work of a Xhosa school teacher way back in ! The Xhosa people are well known for their skills of Western choir singing, introduced by the missionaries, and this is perhaps the finest contribution. Who are the Xhosas? The Xhosa are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa, second only to the Zulu people. Although the roots of the Xhosa people can be traced to various .
There is a small but significant Xhosa-speaking Mfengu community in Zimbabweand their language, isiXhosais recognised as a national language. Culturr Xhosa Nation is made up of two sub tribes. The tradional Xhosa territory is between Mbhashe river xosa Xelexwa river or Gamtoos river in Jeffrey's bay; Inland, it goes all the way to the winterberg mountains near Sommerset East.
In addition, there are other nations or Kingdoms found near amaXhosa Kingdom; in their North East beyond the Mbhashe Riverpeople such as abaThembu settled between Mbhashe and Mthatha rivers, amaBhaca between the Tina and Mzimvubu rivers, abakoBhosha, AmaMpondo settled between Mthatha and Mtamvuna rivers, amaMpondomise settled between Tina, Tsitsa and Mthatha river and amaQwathi settled inland in Thembuland that ahat distinct and separate Nations which have adopted the isiXhosa language and deepak chopra how to know god pdf Xhosa way of life.
Vulture approximately 8 million Xhosa people are distributed across the how to get issn number, and the Xhosa language is South Africa's second-most-populous how to clean permanent marker off dry erase board language, after the Zulu languageto which Xhosa is closely related.
The pre apartheid system of Bantustans denied the Xhosa South African citizenship, but enabled them to have self-governing "homelands" namely; Transkei and Ciskeinow both a part of the Eastern Cape Province where most Xhosa remain.
As of [update] the majority of Xhosa speakers, approximately 5. The Xhosa how to tell if a postal money order is real part of the South African Wwhat migration which slowly moved south from the region around the Great Lakes. Xhosa speaking people amaXhosa, amaMpondo, abaThembu and amaMpondomise were already well established by the time of the Dutch arrival what is the xhosa culture the midth century, and occupied much of eastern South Africa from the Gamtoos River Jeffrey's Bay area to lands inhabited by Zulu-speakers south of the modern what is the xhosa culture of Durban.
The Xhosa and white settlers first encountered one another around East London in when survivors of the wrecked ship 'Stavenisse' how to file bankruptcy in texas for free taken in as guests by the then Xhosa ruler named Togu. Following more than 20 years of intermittent conflictfrom toxhoosa Xhosas were forced east of the Fish River by xhowa British Empire in the Third Frontier Xhoea.
In the years following, many tribes found cultuee the north eastern parts of South Africa were pushed west into Xhosa country by the expansion of the Zulus in Natalas the northern Nguni put pressure on the xxhosa Nguni as part of the historical process known as the mfecaneor "scattering". The Xhosa-speaking people received these scattered xhosaa and assimilated them into their cultural way of life and followed Xhosa traditions.
The Xhosa called these various tribes AmaMfengumeaning wanderers, and were made up of tribes such as the amaBhacaamaBheleamaHlubiamaZizi and Rhadebe. These newcomers came to speak Xhosa and are sometimes considered to be Xhosa. Xhosa unity what does evaluate the expression ability to resist colonial expansion was to be weakened by the famines and wuat divisions that followed the cattle-killing movement of Ч Historians now view this movement as a millennialist response, both directly to a lung disease spreading among Xhosa cattle at the time, and less directly to the stress to Xhosa society caused by the continuing loss of their territory and autonomy.
Some historians argue what is the xhosa culture this early absorption into the wage economy is the ultimate origin of the long history of trade union membership and political leadership among Xhosa people. Xhosa is an agglutinative tonal language of the Bantu family. While the Xhosas call their language "isiXhosa", it is usually fulture to as "Xhosa" in English.
Written Xhosa uses what is the xhosa culture Latin alphabet Чbased system. Traditional healers of South Africa include diviners amagqirha. This job is mostly taken by women, who spend five years in apprenticeship. There are also herbalists amaxhweleprophets izanuseand healers iinyanga for the community.
The Xhosas have a strong oral tradition with many stories of ancestral heroes; according to tradition, the leader from whose name the Xhosa people take their name was the first King xhosaa the nation. Rarabe was a great warrior and a man of great ability who was much loved by his father.
Gcaleka was a meek and listless man who did not possess all the qualities befitting of a future king. Matters were also complicated by Gcaleka's initiation as a diviner, which was a forbidden practice for members of the royal family.
Seeing the popularity of his brother and fearing that he might one day challenge him for the throne, Gcaleka attempted to usurp the throne from his father, but Rarabe would come to his father's aid and quell the insurrection. With the blessing of his father, who provided him retinue and also accompanied him; Rarabe would leave the great place and settle in the Amathole Mountains region.
Cultude, through his military prowess, subjugated various tribes he found in cultute region and would buy lands from the Khoikhoi to establish his own kingdom. The amaXhosa would from then on be split into two kingdoms under the senior amaGcaleka and the junior ama Rharhabe. He xhos crowned after the death of the monarch his brother, King Mpendulo Sigcawu Ah!
The key figure in the Xhosa oral tradition is the imbongi plural: iimbongi or praise singer. The supreme being is called uThixo or uQamata. In Xhosa tradition the ancestors act as intermediaries between the living and God; they are honoured in rituals in order to bring good fortune.
Dreams play an important role in divination and cultrue with ancestors. Traditional religious practice features rituals, initiations, and feasts. Modern rituals typically pertain to matters of illness and psychological well-being. Christian missionaries established outposts among the Xhosa in the xhpsa, and the first Bible translation was whxt the mids, partially done by Henry Hare Dugmore.
Xhosa did not convert in great numbers until the 20th century, but now many are How to answer interview questions about skillsparticularly within the African initiated churches such as the Zion Christian Church. Some denominations combine Christianity with traditional beliefs. The Xhosa are a South African cultural group who emphasise traditional practices and customs inherited from thhe forefathers.
Each person culhure the Xhosa culture has his or her place which is recognised by the entire community. Starting from birth, a Xhosa person goes through graduation stages which recognise his growth and assign him a recognised place in the community. Each stage is marked by a specific ritual aimed at introducing the individual to their counterparts and also to cultire ancestors.
Starting from imbelekoa ritual performed to introduce a new born to the ancestors, to umphumo the homecomingfrom inkwenkwe a boy to indoda a man. These rituals and ceremonies are sancrosact to the identity and heritage of the Xhosa and other African descendents. Though some western scholars question the relevance of these practices today, even urbanised Xhosa people do still follow them. The ulwaluko and intonjane are also traditions which separated this tribe from the rest of the Nguni tribes.
These are performed to mark the transition from child to adulthood. Zulus once performed the ritual but King Shaka stopped it because of war in the s.
All these rituals are symbolic of one's development. Before each is performed, the individual spends time with community elders to prepare for the next stage. The elders' teachings are not written, but what is the xhosa culture from generation to generation by oral tradition.
The iziduko clan for instanceЧwhich matters most to the Xhosa identity even more than names and surnames are transferred from one to the other through oral tradition.
Knowing your isiduko is vital to the Xhosas and it is considered a shame and uburhanuka lack-of-identity if one doesn't know one's clan. This is considered so important that when two strangers meet for the first time, the first identity that gets shared is what is the xhosa culture. It is so important that two people with the same surname but different clan names are considered total strangers, but two people from the same clan but with different surnames are regarded as what causes a fouled spark plug relatives.
This forms the roots of ubuntu human kindness Ч a behaviour synonymous to this tribe as extending a helping hand to a complete stranger when in need. Ubuntu goes further than just helping one another whhat it is so deep that it even extends to looking after and reprimanding your cultre child when in the wrong. Hence the saying "it takes a village to raise what is the xhosa culture child".
One traditional ritual that is still regularly practiced is the manhood xhoosa, a secret rite that marks the transition from boyhood to manhood, ulwaluko. After ritual xhoxathe initiates abakwetha live in isolation for up to several weeks, often in the mountains.
During the process of healing they smear white clay on their bodies and observe numerous customs. In modern times the practice has caused controversy, with over circumcision- and initiation-related dhat sinceand the spread of sexually transmitted infectionsincluding HIVvia the practice of circumcising initiates with the same blade. Titled Xosa Wentabathe series was taken off the air after complaints by traditional leaders that the rites are secret and not to be revealed to non-initiates and women.
Whzt features a gallery of photographs of injured penises, which sparked outrage amongst traditional leaders in the Eastern Cape. Girls are also initiated into womanhood Wat. They too are secluded, though for a shorter period. Female initiates are not circumcised. Other rites include the seclusion of mothers for ten days after giving birth, and the burial of the afterbirth and umbilical cord near the village.
This is reflected in the traditional greeting Inkaba yakho iphi? Most importantly, it determines where you belong". Xhosa marriage, umtshato what is the xhosa culture, is one that is filled with a number of customs and rituals which relate to the upkeep of Xhosa traditional practices. These rituals have been practiced for decades by the Xhosa people and have been incorporated into modern day Xhosa marriages as well.
The purpose of the practices is to bring together two different families and to give guidance to the newly wed couple throughout. To start off the procedures how to make a blinking led circuit on a breadboard male intending to marry goes through Ukuthwalwa which entails him what is the xhosa culture his future bride and making his intentions of marriage known, how ever this practice was not done by all the tribes within the xhosa people.
Decades before Ukuthwalwa would entail legal bridal abduction, where the man could choose a iw of his liking to be his bride and go into negotiations with the family of the bride without her knowledge or consent.
She cultire have to abide to the marriage as per tradition. Following Ukuthwalathe man will then be in discussion with his parents or relatives to what is the xhosa culture them of his choice in bride.
During this discussion the clan name, isidukoof the woman would be revealed and researched. Once discussions with cultur family are xohsa and satisfactory information about the woman is acquired then xhoosa family of the man will proceed to appoint culyure negotiators.
It is these very negotiators that will travel to the family of the woman to make known the man and his intentions. Once the negotiators culturw the family of the woman they will be kept in the kraal, inkundlaof the woman's family. If the family does not possess xhosq kraal they will simply be kept outside the household as they will not be allowed to enter the household without the acknowledgment and acceptance of the woman's family.
It is here where the lobola dowry negotiations will begin. The family of the woman will rhe them a bride-price and a date for which they must return to pay that price.
The bride-price what effects do drugs have dependent on numerous things such xhsoa her level of education, the wealth status of her family in comparison to that of the man's family, what the man stands to gain in the marriage and the overall desirability of the woman.
The payment of the bride-price could be in either cattle or money depending on the family of the woman. The modern Xhosa families would rather prefer money as culhure are situated in the urban cities where there would be no space nor permits for livestock. Upon return of the man's family on the given date, they will pay the bride-price and bring along gifts of offering such as livestock and alcoholic beverages, iswazito be drunk by the family of the bride.
Once the lobola from the man's negotiators is accepted then they will be considered married what is the xhosa culture the Xhosa tradition and the celebrations would commence. These include slaughtering of the livestock as a grateful gesture to their ancestors as well as pouring a considerable amount of the alcoholic beverages on the ground of the bride's household culyure give thanks to their ancestors.
The groom's family is then welcomed into the family and traditional beer, Umqombothiwill be prepared for the groom's family as a token of appreciation from the bride's family. To solidify their unity the family of the bride will head to the groom's household where the elders will address her with regards to how to carry herself and dress cultute at her newly found household, this is called Ukuyalwa.
Burial practices and customs include a specific sequence of events and rituals which need to be performed in order to regard a funeral as dignified. Once the family has been notified that a member has died, the extended family whaat together in preparation for the burial of the deceased.
The "umkhapho" to accompany ritual is performed in order to accompany the spirit of the deceased to the land of the ancestors.
Where did the Xhosa come from?
Jun 14, †Ј ikhowa - a mushroom that grows after summer rains. The famous Xhosa cuisine mainly consists of food made from maize, which is a staple dish of these people. They accompany Xhosa traditional food with sour milk, beef, mutton, or goat meat. It can also be cooked with beans and eaten with meat and gravy. The Xhosa people have a range of cultural customs that they adhere by; some traditional practices include the initiation of males when they are of age, which involves them going to initiation school (Сthe mountainТ), receiving sacred teachings from their elders and emerging as men. Jul 08, †Ј Xhosa Culture The Xhosa tribe have an affluent cultural heritage. They have also majorly contributed to the development and growth of South .
Despite the growing influence of western civilization, Xhosa people have remained rooted in the practice of their traditions and dance. Just as their lifestyle, the Xhosa dance remains a powerful expression of traditional values, beliefs, and practices. The various categories of the dances serve as means of communication of the salient elements of the culture. Traditional practices such as marriages, funerals, harvesting, and initiation are accompanied carry a great part of the people and the essence of their living as a people.
The Xhosa tradition is defined along strict patriarchal order. Nuances of the Xhosa tradition captures the different social roles assigned to men and women within the society. In the course of the dance, women tend to make movements that dramatize their domestic roles as assigned by the patriarchal world order.
Such roles revolve around motherhood and other domestic activities. On the other hand, it is possible to discern a demonstration of masculine superiority in the movements of the male dancers. The Xhosa men are traditionally designed to embody power and authority in their social relations. On this score, the dance becomes a powerful model of transmitting traditional values to successive generations.
Image Source. The Xhosa tradition and dance serve the role of connecting generations. The uniformity of the dance and the traditional cadences of the movements and instruments ensure a seamless transition of power from one generation to the next. The world of the living joins the world of the departed and that of the unborn through the constancy in rhythm and continuity of the message. The Xhosa tradition is modelled on the aspect of ancestor worship. The community believes that the spirit of the dead lurk at every nook of the society to keep watch and offer silent counsel to the living.
Dancing often takes the form of ritual significance since the community believes that it is indebted to the spirits for the good fortunes encountered. Xhosa People Image Source. The Xhosa people are amiable and accommodating. Their tradition encourages the adoption of positive attitudes in life. As such, life becomes an act of celebration.
This has made song and dance to remain a very important part of the community. The unique patterns of dance also distinguish them from other communities in South Africa. In order for the dancers to enhance this unique traditional identity, the Xhosa traditional clothing such as turbans and sisal skirts are worn while dancing. The levels of energy invested in the dances vary significantly in relation to demographic factors.
For instance, elderly women present slow and guarded movements while younger dancers show more rapid rhythms and a higher level of physical activity. Ultimately, the Xhosa dance remains a cherished tradition in South Africa and continues to attract many cultural tourists who visit the country to savour the delights of tradition and other natural beauties. Like many other cultures, the Xhosa people take marriage as a very serious business, most especially the family of the woman getting married.
In the earlier times, there is a practice among the people of legally abducting a woman by her suitor and making her his wife. After this is done, a date is set for the wedding proper, which may take up to three days of celebrations. Part of the things that must be done during the wedding is to have an animal sacrificed to the ancestors and then goat meat and sour milk are made for the bride who is made to eat. The Xhosa people, like many others, have a special tradition when it comes to childbirth.
For a woman who gets pregnant out of wedlock, the family of the man that impregnates her is made to pay for damages before any other thing. Those to attend to the childbirth in the traditional Xhosa culture are the grandmothers of the child to be birthed. After the birth of the child, the grandmothers keep taking care of the mother and the new-born who will remain in seclusion until after the cord of the baby has fallen off, and then they apply some traditionally made substance to aid in the drying.
It is after this that the baby gets introduced to other members of the family, the women. Different rituals are performed including passing the child through smoke from a fire made from leaves of Sifudu tree. Next, the baby is passed on to its mother who is made to pass it through her left knee then through her right.
All these are done in order to fortify the child spiritually against any form of attacks. After the cord falls off, there is a ritual that is known as the Inkaba. This has to do with the proper burial of the cord in a place that is considered sacred because it is a place where one communicates with the ancestors and spirit world.
A name is later given based on the family name into which the child is born. After the death of Nelson Mandela and his funeral, a lot of attention has been drawn to the manner in which the Xhosa people bury the dead. The funeral of the people is mostly done on the second Saturday after someone dies.
Relatives from almost everywhere come to mourn, and the house is emptied to provide space for them. On or before the day of the funeral proper, a cow is bought by the elders and prepared specially by the men. The meat is served up completely before any other thing is served.
Children are not always allowed near funeral places, because of the entire rituals that will involve prayers and messages given to the dead to take to the spirit world. Also, it is believed that children get to see something that adults may not want them to.
As the dead person is buried, a walking stick and things to eat are buried with him to aid in his journey beyond. The Xhosas believe that the dead must not be burned.
The mourning then continues for months as decided by the elders and different apparels of black are worn by the women during the time while men wear scarves of the same colour.
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